Understanding the periodic table through the lens of the volatile Group I metals – EconoTimes how to get rid of acne scars in a month

The news broke that a railroad car, loaded with pure sodium, had just derailed and was spilling its contents. A television reporter called me for an explanation of why how to get rid of acne scars in a month firefighters were not allowed to use water on the flames how to get rid of acne scars in a month bursting from the mangled car. While on the air I added some sodium to a how to get rid of acne scars in a month bit of water in a petri dish and we observed how to get rid of acne scars in a month the vicious reaction. For further dramatic effect, I also placed some potassium into water and astonished everyone how to get rid of acne scars in a month with the explosive bluish flames.

Because group I metals, also known as alkali metals, are very reactive, like the sodium from the rail car or the potassium, they are not found in nature in pure form but how to get rid of acne scars in a month only as salts. Not only are they very reactive, they are soft and shiny, can easily be cut even with a dull knife and how to get rid of acne scars in a month are the most metallic of all known elements.

The arrangement of the periodic table and the properties of how to get rid of acne scars in a month each element in it is based of the atomic number how to get rid of acne scars in a month and the arrangement of the electrons orbiting the nucleus. The atomic number describes the number of protons in the how to get rid of acne scars in a month nucleus of the element. Hydrogen’s atomic number is 1, helium’s is 2, lithium’s is 3 and so on.

Each of the 18 columns in the table is called how to get rid of acne scars in a month a group or a family. Elements in the same group share similar properties. And the properties can be assumed based on the location how to get rid of acne scars in a month within the group. Going from the top of group I to the bottom, for example, the atomic radii – the distance from the nucleus to the outer electrons – increases. But the amount of energy needed to rip off an how to get rid of acne scars in a month outer electron decreases going from the top to the bottom how to get rid of acne scars in a month because the electrons are farther from the nucleus and not how to get rid of acne scars in a month held as tightly.

The horizontal rows of the table are called periods. Moving from the left side of the period to the how to get rid of acne scars in a month right, the atomic radius becomes smaller because each element has one how to get rid of acne scars in a month additional proton and one additional electron. More protons means that electrons are pulled in more tightly how to get rid of acne scars in a month toward the nucleus. For the same reason electronegativity – the degree to which an element tends to gain electrons how to get rid of acne scars in a month – increases from left to right.

As its name implies, group I elements occupy the first column in the periodic how to get rid of acne scars in a month table. Each element starts a new period. Lithium is at the top of the group and is how to get rid of acne scars in a month followed by sodium, na; potassium, K; rubidium, rb; cesium, cs and ends with the radioactive francium, fr. Because it is highly radioactive, virtually no chemistry is performed with this element.

Using chemical properties as his guide, russian chemist dimitri mendeleev correctly ordered the first group I how to get rid of acne scars in a month elements into his 1869 periodic table. It is called periodic because every eighth element repeats the how to get rid of acne scars in a month properties of the one above it in the table. After arranging all of the then known elements, mendeleev took the bold step of leaving blanks where his how to get rid of acne scars in a month extrapolation of chemical properties showed that an element should exist. Subsequent discovery of these new elements proved his prediction correct.

Some alkali metals have been known and put to good how to get rid of acne scars in a month use long before mendeleev created the periodic table. For instance, the old testament mentions salt – a combination of the alkali metal sodium with chlorine – 31 times. The new testament refers to it 10 times and calls how to get rid of acne scars in a month sodium carbonate “neter” and potassium nitrate “saltpeter.”

People have known since antiquity that wood ashes produce a how to get rid of acne scars in a month potassium salt which, when combined with animal fat, will yield soap. Samuel hopkins obtained the first U.S. Patent on july 31, 1790, for soap under the new patent statute just signed into how to get rid of acne scars in a month law by president george washington a few months earlier.

The pyrotechnic industry loves these group I elements for their how to get rid of acne scars in a month vibrant colors and explosive nature. Burning lithium produces a vivid crimson red color; sodium a yellow one; potassium lilac; rubidium red; and cesium violet. These colors are produced as electrons jump from their home how to get rid of acne scars in a month environment orbiting the nucleus and returning back again.

The cesium atomic clock, the most accurate timepiece ever developed, functions by measuring the frequency of cesium electrons jumping back how to get rid of acne scars in a month and forth between energy states. Clocks based on electrons jumping provide an extremely precise way how to get rid of acne scars in a month to count seconds.

In my own research I have used group I metals how to get rid of acne scars in a month as tools to perform other chemistry. Once I was in need of absolutely dry alcohol, and the driest I could buy still contained minute traces how to get rid of acne scars in a month of water. The only way to get rid of the last remnant how to get rid of acne scars in a month of water was by treating the water-containing alcohol with sodium – a rather dramatic way to remove water.

The alkali elements not only occupy the first column in how to get rid of acne scars in a month the periodic table, but they also show the most reactivity of all groups how to get rid of acne scars in a month in the entire table and have the most dramatic trends how to get rid of acne scars in a month in volume and ionization potential, while maintaining great similarity among themselves.

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