How an Obsolete Medical Device With a Security Flaw Became a Must-Have For Some Patients With Type 1 Diabetes how to get rid of small acne scars – Slashdot

From a report on the atlantic: in 2014, a few hackers realized that the security flaw in certain how to get rid of small acne scars medtronic pumps could be exploited for a DIY revolution. Type 1 diabetes is a disease where the pancreas is how to get rid of small acne scars unable to produce insulin to control blood sugar. For years, boss (the anecdote in the story who purchased used insulin pumps how to get rid of small acne scars from some dealer on craiglist) had counted, down to the gram, the carbohydrates in every meal and told his pump how how to get rid of small acne scars much insulin to dispense. […] by 2014, the hardware components of a DIY artificial pancreas — a small insulin pump that attaches via thin disposable tubing how to get rid of small acne scars to the body and a continuous sensor for glucose, or sugar, that slips just under the skin — were available, but it was impossible to connect the two. That’s where the security flaw came in. The hackers realized they could use it to override old how to get rid of small acne scars medtronic pumps with their own algorithm that automatically calculates insulin how to get rid of small acne scars doses based on real-time glucose data. It closed the feedback loop.

They shared this code online as openaps, and "looping," as it’s called, began to catch on. Instead of micromanaging their blood sugar, people with diabetes could offload that work to an algorithm. In addition to openaps, another system called loop is now available. Dozens, then hundreds, and now thousands of people are experimenting with DIY artificial-pancreas systems — none of which the food and drug administration has officially how to get rid of small acne scars approved. And they’ve had to track down discontinued medtronic pumps. It can sometimes take months to find one. Obviously, you can’t just call up medtronic to order a discontinued pump how to get rid of small acne scars with a security flaw. "It’s ebay, craigslist, facebook. It’s like this underground market for these pumps," says aaron kowalski, a DIY looper and also CEO of JDRF, a nonprofit that funds type 1 diabetes research. This is not exactly how a market for lifesaving medical how to get rid of small acne scars devices is supposed to work. And yet, this is the only way it can work — for now.

Auto-immune disorders are when the immune system overreacts to a how to get rid of small acne scars trigger, and starts attacking one’s own body, instead of foreign pathogens. It is a well-known and generally-accepted method of treatment to limit exposure to those aggravating how to get rid of small acne scars triggers, and symptoms will eventually settle down. The lucky folks can then live a mostly-normal life by avoiding that one allergen.

None of that is remotely relevant to type 1 diabetes. "Diabetes" as a whole is when the body doesn’t respond to insulin as it should, causing lots of symptoms that stem from being unable to how to get rid of small acne scars move glucose from the bloodstream into cells. It is not an auto-immune disorder (though an auto-immune disorder might be involved).

In type 2 diabetes, the insulin itself is fine, but the cells don’t react to it properly. This can be due to poor nutrition or obesity. It starts off mild, and progressively gets more severe as the cells respond less how to get rid of small acne scars to the same amount of insulin.

Type 1 diabetes is worse. The pancreas doesn’t make insulin at all, or enough, or the insulin it does produce is defective. There is no real cure, because in many cases, the pancreas itself is physically damaged, often from birth. Sometimes it’s a gestational defect. Sometimes it’s genetic. Either way, it’s not an immune-system reaction to something that can be avoided. It’s not something a particular drug will kick back to how to get rid of small acne scars normal. It’s a permanent condition, most tragic because it usually appears in children.

Having the glucose metabolism fucked up is *one* of the possible physiopathological mechanism causing it (with type I and II being differences at which step how to get rid of small acne scars of the loop there is problem). That’s why one of the family of diabetes, the one which all people usually speak about is called how to get rid of small acne scars diabetes mellitus (sweet diabetes, i.E.: you pee a lot of sweet pee).

It just boils down to the history of medicine. Diabetes was called so, because people came to the doctor complaining that they pee how to get rid of small acne scars abnormal quantities. Doctors, with the rudimentary means back then, when investigating the diseases, noticed that the sugar content was different between the cases how to get rid of small acne scars and decided to make a distinction between the sweet and how to get rid of small acne scars the insipid variants, because it also made sense from the dietary recommendation that how to get rid of small acne scars suited best each case (e.G.: the *sweet* diabetes is the one where the patient would better avoid how to get rid of small acne scars eating sweets and bread. The same recommendation doesn’t work with somebody having the other type).

Eventually modern medicine brought much more possibility to investigate the how to get rid of small acne scars physiopathological process in much more details, and helped us understand better the diseases and treat them how to get rid of small acne scars better. But for historical reasons we kept the "diabetes" part in the name of all "pee-a-lot" diseases.

While medical devices are much less tightly scrutinized than drugs how to get rid of small acne scars (it’s a lot easier — but slow), the companies that create them need to test them, record them, and insure against customers adverse experiences (both reducing the risks and insuring against damages).

I’d be very cautious about using a completely automated, closed-loop system that hasn’t been through extensive testing and validation. What if there’s a problem with the sensor and it keeps feeding how to get rid of small acne scars you more and more insulin, thinking your glucose level is too high, or cuts you off thinking the glucose is already low how to get rid of small acne scars when it isn’t? You need to monitor, set limits, etc., which patients may not be patient enough to do. An app that interacts with the system, records trends and has alerts would be a good step how to get rid of small acne scars (then your phone becomes a regulated medical device too).

This is why we should be spending more tax dollars how to get rid of small acne scars on research (and fewer on the military) – an NIH-based study, that requires reasonable prices for these upgrades to the pump how to get rid of small acne scars and glucose monitor, yet is backed by the support of the manufacturer, _should_ show benefits to public health: fewer diabetic comas, fewer patients with long-term damage, etc. More FDA center for devices and radiological health reviewers would how to get rid of small acne scars help too.

I’m a type 1 that uses a medtronic pump. I tried using the medtronic continuous glucose monitor (CGM) a few years ago (this is a necessary component of the closed-loop system). I wouldn’t call myself a beta tester, but I found the following issues with it:

1) the monitor was widely inaccurate, sometimes off by over 100 points. I still had to check my blood glucose using a how to get rid of small acne scars traditional monitor at least 4 times a day to calibrate how to get rid of small acne scars the CGM. I realize that the purpose of the CGM is to how to get rid of small acne scars provide your doctor with trend data, but this wouldn’t help you at all with a closed loop system. I ended up just using it for the week before how to get rid of small acne scars I went to the doctor so that he could have how to get rid of small acne scars some reasonable data to work with.

All that said, I’ve heard that the technology has improved drastically since then, and prices have dropped considerably. I upgraded to a newer version of their pump early how to get rid of small acne scars last year, which works in conjunction with the CGM to automatically adjust how to get rid of small acne scars your basal rate (this is the amount of insulin delivered throughout the day). This isn’t a true-closed loop system, because it doesn’t automatically adjust your bolus (this is what’s delivered to handle your carbohydrate intake during meals). The bolus is hard to account for automatically, because the CGM wouldn’t detect it until all of those carbohydrates have already how to get rid of small acne scars entered your bloodstream, and you’d risk having hyperglycemia for a few hours until the how to get rid of small acne scars insulin took affect.

Mind, the problem with type 1 diabetes is that it kills how to get rid of small acne scars a family of cells that don’t seem to regrow; it just doesn’t have the same type of spontaneous remission as those how to get rid of small acne scars do. Imagine if psoriasis killed all your skin cells and immediate how to get rid of small acne scars predecessors dead, and you have a comparable problem. The default state of an untreated type-1 diabetic living an otherwise healthy, natural, lifestyle is "dead", sadly.

As far as we can tell, t1d is related to some specific immune gene mutations triggering how to get rid of small acne scars on … Something. One idea I’ve heard is that the trigger in predisposed individuals is how to get rid of small acne scars some normal and otherwise neutral/good intestinal flora that just happens to look vaguely like how to get rid of small acne scars a pancreatic cell marker, and that the increased amount of type 1 diabetics is how to get rid of small acne scars a side effect of some random mutation in that bacteria how to get rid of small acne scars that makes it look more so than it used to.

That said, there are ideas out there. Using something like CRISPR to induce a different set of how to get rid of small acne scars cells to produce insulin in response to glucose (e.G. In the intestines) has been suggested, and would change the routine from "insulin every few hours" to "drink some virus solution every few months". Breeding new insulin-producing pancreatic cells and finding a way to encapsulate them how to get rid of small acne scars so the immune cells don’t get to them has been studied. A research department around here is testing if some specific how to get rid of small acne scars antiviral treatment in the early phase (where you still make _some_ insulin) could stave off full onset for a while, though I’m not sure what their working theory is.

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